Mold can be a silent invader in your home, lurking in damp corners and hidden spaces. This unseen menace threatens your property and health. Mold removal is about eliminating visible patches and addressing underlying causes to ensure a long-term solution.

In this article, we’ll explore the process of mold removal, uncovering the steps to identifying, preventing, and eliminating these persistent fungi. We’ll explore mold-prone areas and professional techniques, diving into the world of mold remediation.

We’ll also discuss the tools and products available for DIY mold mitigation, as well as when it’s time to call in the experts. From common household solutions to advanced remediation methods, we’ll cover a range of strategies to combat mold effectively.

Mold Removal
Source: / Photo Contributor: Roman Tishchenko

Causes of Mold Growth

Common causes

Water leaks

Leaks are a major source of mold growth. They can occur on roofs, pipes, or windows. Even small leaks can create enough moisture for mold. It’s essential to fix leaks promptly to prevent mold from developing.

High humidity

Humid environments are ideal for mold, and places such as bathrooms and basements tend to be especially humid. To tackle this issue, dehumidifiers play a crucial role by effectively controlling and reducing excess moisture.

Additionally, proper ventilation is essential. It helps lower humidity and prevent mold growth.


Condensation occurs when warm air comes into contact with cold surfaces, typically seen on windows or pipes. To reduce condensation, insulate these colder surfaces effectively. We must point out that regularly wiping away condensation is crucial to prevent mold growth.

Conditions that promote mold growth


Mold thrives in damp environments. You’ll find it in areas with excess moisture, such as wet carpets, damp basements, or spots with poor drainage. So, you must address moisture issues promptly to prevent mold growth.


Mold thrives in warm conditions, usually between 60 °F and 80 °F. It can survive in colder and hotter environments, but controlling indoor temperature effectively is crucial for mold growth.

Organic materials

Mold thrives on organic materials like wood, paper, fabric, and even dust. When these areas are clean and dry, you reduce the food sources that mold needs to grow. That’s why regular cleaning and maintenance are crucial preventive measures against mold.

Types of Mold

Common types found in homes


Aspergillus is a common indoor mold that often appears as gray-green or black spots. It thrives in damp areas with poor ventilation, such as walls, ceilings, and fabrics, and is frequently found in air conditioning systems.

To prevent its growth, regular cleaning and maintenance are crucial. Some individuals may experience allergic reactions to Aspergillus, including respiratory issues and eye irritation. In rare cases, it might lead to more severe health problems.


Cladosporium is another prevalent household mold. It is dark green or brown and often grows on damp window sills and in bathrooms. It can also be found on fabrics and wood surfaces. Cladosporium thrives in both cool and warm environments. 

To prevent Cladosporium growth, you must ensure good ventilation and control moisture. Although generally non-toxic, cladosporium might provoke allergies and potentially lead to respiratory issues for some individuals. So, you must follow regular cleaning routines to manage its presence.

Source: / Photo Contributor: Andrey_Popov


Stachybotrys, commonly known as ‘black mold,’ is identifiable by its dark color. This mold thrives in consistently moist environments. It typically colonizes materials rich in cellulose, such as drywall, wood, and paper.

Unlike more prevalent household molds, Stachybotrys might pose significant health risks due to its ability to produce toxic compounds known as mycotoxins. We recommend professional removal services for effective eradication when dealing with Stachybotrys infestations.

Possible health risks associated with different types of mold

Allergic reactions

Many types of mold might trigger allergic reactions. You may experience symptoms like sneezing, a runny nose, or itchy eyes. Some individuals might even develop skin rashes or hives.

The severity of these reactions varies, often based on your sensitivity. Those with existing allergies or asthma tend to be more vulnerable.

Respiratory issues

Mold exposure might lead to respiratory problems, especially for people with pre-existing conditions. You may experience symptoms like coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Over time, exposure might exacerbate asthma and even raise the likelihood of developing it. That’s why it’s vital to prioritize effective mold removal and prevention to safeguard your respiratory health.

Toxic effects

Some molds, like Stachybotrys, produce mycotoxins – toxic compounds that might cause various health issues. Symptoms might include headaches, dizziness, and fatigue; in severe cases, they may affect the nervous system or other organs. If you suspect toxic mold, we advise you to seek professional assessment promptly.

Signs of Mold Infestation

Visible mold growth

Mold often appears as discolored patches on surfaces. These can be black, green, brown, or even white. You should look for spots or streaks on walls, ceilings, or floors.

The patches may start small but can grow quickly. They often have a fuzzy or slimy texture. Regular inspection of your home can help catch mold growth early.

Mold can grow in hidden areas, too. You should check behind furniture and appliances, carpets, and cabinets. Basements and attics are common hiding spots for mold. Inspect these areas regularly, especially after heavy rains. You can use a flashlight to look at dark corners and crevices.

Musty odors

A musty odor is often the first sign of mold. This damp, earthy smell may be noticeable even before visible mold appears. The odor can be stronger in enclosed spaces and more apparent when first entering a room. If you detect mustiness, investigate further for mold.

Try to locate the source of the smell. The strongest point of the odor can often lead you to where mold might be hiding—behind walls, under floors, or near vents and ducts. In some cases, the smell near vents could indicate mold in your HVAC system, which may require a professional inspection.

Water damage and staining

Water stains on walls or ceilings are clear indicators of moisture issues. These stains can vary in color from yellow to brown or copper. While not all water stains signify active mold growth, they highlight conditions favorable for mold development. It’s crucial to promptly address the water damage source to prevent mold.

Keep an eye out for peeling paint or wallpaper, as these can signal moisture trapped behind surfaces. Additionally, bubbling or warping in wood or drywall is an early warning before visible mold appears. These signs indicate an environment conducive to mold growth. You must resolve the underlying moisture problem swiftly to mitigate mold issues.

Water damage and staining
Source: / Photo Contributor: Singkham

Process of Mold Removal

Initial assessment and inspection

The first step is a thorough visual inspection. Experts look for visible signs of mold growth; they check all areas, including hidden spots. They utilize special tools like moisture meters to detect damp areas that aren’t immediately visible. Throughout this process, photos are taken to document the extent of the problem.

If you suspect mold, samples may be taken for lab analysis. This helps identify the type of mold and assess contamination levels. Common methods include air samples and surface swabs. Results from these tests guide the removal plan and serve as a baseline for post-removal checks.

Containment of affected areas

Containment prevents mold spores from spreading. You can use plastic sheeting to seal off affected areas, creating a barrier between clean and contaminated spaces. Sealing doors and vents in the work area stops airflow to other building parts, making proper containment crucial for effective mold mitigation.

Creating negative air pressure in the work area is also important. This ensures air flows into the contained area, not out. And special equipment is used to prevent mold spores from escaping the work zone. Maintaining negative pressure throughout the removal process protects unaffected areas.

Air filtration and ventilation

HEPA filtration

High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are essential for removing tiny mold spores from the air. These filters are used in air scrubbers and vacuums. During mold mitigation, HEPA filtration runs continuously, capturing airborne spores released during the process. This might reduce the risk of contamination.

Proper ventilation

Good ventilation is crucial during mold removal. It helps control humidity levels and dries out damp areas. You can use fans and dehumidifiers to improve air circulation. 

This not only removes existing mold but also prevents new growth. Proper airflow must be maintained throughout the removal and drying process.

Removal of mold-infested materials

Non-porous surfaces

Mold can often be cleaned from non-porous surfaces like glass, metal, and some plastics. Start by using special solutions to kill and remove the mold, then scrub thoroughly and dry the area completely. If the mold is stubborn, you may need to repeat the cleaning process. 

After treatment, prevention is essential. Keep surfaces dry and well-ventilated, and clean them regularly to deter future mold growth.

Porous materials

Porous materials with mold, such as carpets, drywall, and insulation, often need removal. These items can harbor mold deep within their fibers. Removal should be done carefully to reduce spore release. Contaminated items are sealed in plastic bags and disposed of following local regulations.

Cleaning and sanitizing affected areas

After mold removal, surfaces undergo treatment with antimicrobial solutions to kill remaining spores and prevent future growth. The effectiveness depends on proper product application tailored to each surface type.

Next, all affected surfaces, including areas without visible mold, receive a thorough cleaning. HEPA vacuums remove loose spores and debris, followed by wet wiping with detergent solutions to eliminate any remaining mold residue. This meticulous cleaning process ensures comprehensive mold removal.

Cleaning and sanitizing affected areas
Source: / Photo Contributor: New Africa

Drying and dehumidification

Water extraction

If you have standing water, the first step is to remove it promptly. Professionals use pumps and wet vacuums for this task. Swift water removal is crucial to halt mold growth. 

You might need to lift carpets and padding to ensure subfloors dry thoroughly. Complete water extraction is vital for effective drying. The extraction process also includes removing water from wall cavities and hidden spaces. 

Moreover, specialized equipment such as moisture meters helps pinpoint trapped water. Thorough extraction in these areas prevents lasting structural damage and stops mold growth.


Industrial dehumidifiers are used to dry the area, removing moisture from air and materials. They work by extracting moisture from both the air and materials, a process that can span several days. Throughout this time, moisture levels are closely monitored until they return to normal, preventing potential mold growth.

Air movers are strategically positioned to complement dehumidifiers and improve the drying process. These devices boost air circulation, speed up evaporation and ensure even drying across the affected area. Together, these tools are essential in restoring spaces after water damage.

Post-removal inspection and testing

After cleaning and drying, a final inspection ensures all visible mold has been removed. Any remaining issues are addressed immediately. The inspection also checks for potential future problems in moisture-prone areas, with recommendations for prevention often provided.

After removal, air samples are compared to initial samples to confirm reduced mold levels. Surface testing then verifies that cleaned areas are truly mold-free. If elevated levels persist, further cleaning may be necessary.

Why Is Mold Removal Important?

Preventing structural damage to property

Wood decay

Mold can cause wood to rot and decay, weakening the structural integrity of buildings. It affects floors, walls, and support beams, leading to serious structural issues over time. This decay may necessitate expensive repairs or replacements. Early mold mitigation can prevent such damage.

The decay typically starts with surface mold that penetrates deeper into the wood. As it advances, the wood becomes soft, brittle, and susceptible to breaking. This might pose safety risks, especially in load-bearing structures, potentially resulting in collapse if untreated.

Damage to building materials

Mold can deteriorate various building materials. It can eat away at drywall and insulation. Paint and wallpaper may peel or bubble due to mold growth. These issues not only look unsightly but can be costly to fix. Addressing mold promptly can save money on repairs. It also helps maintain the value of your property.

Mold can also affect the integrity of concrete and masonry surfaces. It can penetrate porous materials, leading to cracks and structural weakening over time. This damage can be particularly problematic in foundations and load-bearing walls, potentially compromising the building’s stability.

HVAC system damage

Mold in HVAC systems can cause significant problems, reducing heating and cooling efficiency. This leads to higher energy bills and decreased comfort. Mold can also spread through air ducts, contaminating air throughout the building. But regular inspections and prompt removal can prevent these issues.

Furthermore, mold growth can damage HVAC components, including coils, drain pans, and filters. This damage can lead to system malfunctions and costly repairs. In severe cases, extensive mold contamination may necessitate the replacement of the entire HVAC system.

HVAC system damage
Source: / Photo Contributor: Jasmine Sahin

Cost implications of delaying removal

Increased repair costs

You should address mold promptly because it can worsen over time. Even a minor issue can escalate into significant damage. As a result, repair expenses increase. If you wait too long, you might need to replace more materials. 

Additionally, the remediation process could become more complicated. Taking action early often saves money in the end.

Health-related expenses

As mentioned, exposure to mold over time might cause health problems. You might need medical treatment or medication as a result. Healthcare expenses can accumulate rapidly. In more severe instances, mold-related illnesses could lead to missed workdays. 

This, in turn, may affect your income or productivity. So, acting promptly to mitigate mold might help prevent these financial burdens.

Property value decrease

Mold problems can substantially decrease property values. This becomes especially critical with severe or long-standing infestations, making it harder to sell your property.

Potential buyers are often discouraged by mold issues and may insist on significant price reductions. Promptly addressing mold is essential to preserving your property’s value.

Choosing a Mold Removal Company

Factors to Consider 

Licensing and certification

Mold remediation companies must meet specific state requirements. Check your state’s regulations to see if a license is necessary. Always ask for proof of their license; reputable companies readily provide this. Hiring a licensed company ensures they follow proper procedures.

Additionally, look for companies with industry-recognized certifications like those from IICRC. These certifications indicate proper training and commitment to professional standards. They often require ongoing education, ensuring the company stays current with best practices.

Experience and expertise

Consider the company’s operating history, particularly in mold remediation. More years in the field often indicate greater experience in handling complex situations and suggest stability and reliability.

Companies vary in specialization; some focus solely on mold removal, while others offer it within broader restoration services. Specialists typically possess deeper knowledge and specific expertise. Ask about their experience with your mold problem and their approach to remediation, as this specialization can lead to more effective solutions.

Experience and expertise of the Company
Source: / Photo Contributor: Fevziie

Response time and availability

Check if the company offers 24/7 emergency services for immediate attention to mold problems. A quick response is crucial to prevent additional damage. Inquire about their typical response times and the timeline for the remediation process. A reputable company should initiate remediation swiftly and provide clear schedules.

In addition, consider how the company’s schedule fits with yours. Some companies offer weekend or evening appointments, which can be essential if you need to be present during the remediation. Plus, discuss the expected duration of the process to plan accordingly.

Reviews and testimonials

When researching fire restoration companies, start by checking online platforms for customer reviews. Look at both positive and negative feedback. Pay close attention to how the company responds to complaints. While a few negative reviews are common, a recurring pattern of issues should raise concerns.

Next, ask the company directly for references from past clients. If possible, contact these references to better understand the company’s work quality, professionalism, timeliness, cleanliness, and effectiveness. Personal references often provide valuable insights into the overall customer experience.

Insurance coverage

Make sure the company has liability insurance to protect you in case accidents happen during remediation. Ask for proof of coverage and know what it covers, like property damage and personal injury.

Also, check if the company carries worker’s compensation insurance. This insurance covers employees for work-related injuries and shields them from potential lawsuits. Proper insurance shows responsibility and worker safety, often leading to better overall service.

Technology and equipment used

When you inquire about the company, ask about its technology and equipment. Find out if they use tools like moisture meters, thermal imaging cameras, and HEPA air scrubbers. These modern tools can significantly improve efficiency and effectiveness. They help in detecting hidden mold and ensuring thorough remediation.

Also, ask about their cleaning products. Check their eco-friendliness and safety for occupants. The company should explain how they select products for different situations and describe their cleaning process clearly.

Questions to ask potential companies

About their process

Ask for a detailed explanation of their remediation process. They should be able to outline each step clearly. This helps you understand what to expect. Inquire about their containment methods. 

You should also ask how they prevent mold from spreading during removal. A good company will have clear protocols for this.

Questions to ask potential companies
Source: / Photo Contributor: New Africa

About guarantees

Ask if they offer any guarantees for their work. Some companies may provide warranties on mold-free periods. Understand the terms of any guarantees offered. 

Moreover, inquire about their policy if mold returns. A reputable company should stand behind their work. Clear guarantees can provide peace of mind.

About post-remediation

You should request information about their post-remediation procedures. This might include final inspections or air quality testing. Understand how they ensure the job is completely done. 

Aldo, inquire about any follow-up services they offer. Some may provide tips for preventing future mold growth. Post-remediation support can be valuable for long-term mold prevention.

DIY vs. Professional Mold Removal

When DIY might be feasible (small, contained areas)

Size of the affected area

DIY removal can be effective if you spot small mold patches, like on bathroom tiles or window sills (typically under 10 square feet). However, tackling larger areas can increase the risk of spreading spores. 

For these cases, extensive containment measures are necessary. We advise you to seek professional help for larger infestations to ensure thorough and safe removal.

Type of surface

Non-porous surfaces like glass, metal, or sealed wood are easier to clean. These don’t allow deep mold penetration and can often be cleaned with household products. 

Simply scrubbing and ensuring thorough drying may be enough. Remember to always wear protective gear, even for small areas.


If you spot mold on walls or countertops, you can usually remove it yourself. Yet, mold hidden inside walls or HVAC systems demands professional assistance. Experts possess the specialized knowledge and tools necessary for thorough remediation.

Benefits of hiring professionals

Comprehensive assessment

Professionals can conduct thorough inspections. They often find a hidden mold that’s not visible. This includes mold inside walls or under floors. 

As mentioned, they use specialized tools for detection, such as moisture meters and thermal cameras. A comprehensive assessment ensures that all mold is found and addressed.

Advanced equipment

When you hire a professional mold mitigation company, they bring in industrial-grade tools. These include powerful HEPA air scrubbers and filters, which excel at containing and removing mold spores. Unlike consumer-grade equipment, these tools are highly effective.

Additionally, these companies use professional-grade cleaning solutions. These solutions are stronger and more efficient than what’s available to the general public. This ensures a thorough mold mitigation process.

Safety measures

Professionals follow strict safety protocols and use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), reducing exposure risks. They expertly set up containment areas to prevent mold spread. These safety measures protect both workers and occupants throughout the remediation process.

Potential pitfalls of DIY efforts

Incomplete removal

DIY efforts often miss hidden mold, addressing only visible growth while overlooking underlying issues. This oversight often leads to mold regrowth, as visible growth doesn’t necessarily mean the problem is fully solved. Without specialized equipment, completely removing mold can be difficult, making professional help more effective at preventing recurrence.

DIY efforts may also miss the root cause of mold, like ongoing moisture problems, which can lead to persistent issues despite surface-level cleaning. However, professionals can conduct thorough assessments to identify and fix these underlying issues, ensuring long-term mold prevention.

Health risks

Disturbing mold without proper protection might release spores, risking inhalation and potential respiratory issues or allergic reactions. DIY removers often underestimate necessary safety precautions, neglecting adequate masks or protective clothing. This lack of proper gear might increase the risk of mold-related health problems.

Prolonged exposure during DIY removal might also exacerbate existing health conditions or trigger new sensitivities. That said, professionals are trained to minimize these risks, protecting both themselves and occupants. Their expertise ensures safe handling and disposal of mold-contaminated materials.

Spread of mold

Improper removal techniques can inadvertently spread mold to unaffected areas, especially when containment is inadequate. DIY attempts may result in spore transfer via clothing or tools, while lack of proper air filtration can allow spores to circulate throughout the house.

Professionals use effective containment methods to prevent this unintended spread. They also ensure proper disposal of mold-contaminated materials, following strict protocols to minimize the risk of spreading mold to clean areas or reintroducing it to the environment.

Insurance Coverage for Mold Damage

Insurance coverage for mold damage varies depending on the policy type and cause of the mold. Homeowners, flood, and commercial property insurance may cover damage restoration in certain situations, typically when it results from sudden, accidental events. 

When you file a claim, make sure to document the damage thoroughly and report it promptly. Taking immediate steps to prevent further mold growth is also crucial. 

Throughout the process, work closely with insurance adjusters. Be prepared for inspections and ask questions to fully understand how your claim will be handled.

Some common challenges during the claims process include denials, coverage limits, and disputes over the cause of the mold. To address these challenges, consider appealing denials with additional evidence, reviewing your policy’s coverage limits, and seeking expert opinions on the mold’s origin.

Remember, clear communication and thorough documentation are essential for successfully navigating mold damage insurance claims. These steps might ensure you receive the coverage and assistance you need to address mold issues effectively.

Preventing Mold Growth

Moisture control and maintenance

Preventing mold growth requires a multi-faceted approach focusing on moisture control and regular maintenance. You can achieve this by managing humidity levels with dehumidifiers and effective air conditioning. 

Regularly inspecting plumbing for leaks and maintaining appliances is crucial. It’s also important to enhance ventilation using exhaust fans and opening windows to reduce indoor moisture. 

Moisture control and maintenance
Source: / Photo Contributor: PPC Photography Cologne

Exterior maintenance and landscaping

Seasonal maintenance, including gutter cleaning and insulation checks, prevents water intrusion. Proper landscaping and drainage solutions, such as correct grading and effective gutter systems, might keep water away from the foundation.

By implementing these strategies, you can significantly reduce the risk of mold growth. This approach maintains a healthier living environment and protects their investment from potential damage.

Health Risks Associated With Mold Exposure

Allergic reactions

Mold exposure might lead to various health issues, ranging from mild allergic reactions to severe long-term effects. Common symptoms include sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, and skin rashes.

These allergic responses are often immediate and might persist as long as exposure continues. In some cases, you may develop more severe allergic reactions over time. This might lead to heightened sensitivity to even small amounts of mold.

Respiratory and chronic conditions

Mold exposure might trigger asthma attacks and cause breathing difficulties, posing significant respiratory concerns. Long-term exposure may lead to chronic conditions such as persistent sinusitis and, in rare cases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, potentially causing permanent lung damage

Some studies suggest possible neurological effects, though further research is needed. If you have pre-existing respiratory conditions or a weakened immune system, you are particularly vulnerable to these health impacts. You may experience more severe symptoms and face a higher risk of developing chronic respiratory issues due to mold exposure.

Individual susceptibility and prevention

Health risks vary among individuals. Some people are more susceptible than others. Prompt mold remediation and prevention are crucial to mitigate these risks and maintain a healthy living environment. Factors affecting susceptibility include age, overall health, and genetic predisposition.

Children, elderly individuals, and those with compromised immune systems or existing respiratory conditions are often more vulnerable to mold-related health issues. That said, regular home inspections and moisture control might significantly reduce exposure risks for all occupants.

Technological Advances in Mold Removal

Technological advances have transformed mold mitigation, introducing new equipment and techniques. Tools like thermal imaging cameras and moisture meters now offer greater detection precision. Methods such as dry ice blasting and enzymatic cleaners have also improved efficiency and safety in removal processes.

These advancements benefit the industry by enhancing accuracy, possibly reducing health risks, and speeding up remediation. Yet, misconceptions about mold persist. It’s crucial to understand that mold can thrive in any climate, bleach isn’t always effective, and simply painting over mold won’t solve the problem.

Mold growth stems primarily from moisture issues and can begin within 24-48 hours of water exposure. While not all molds pose immediate health risks, timely and proper removal is essential to prevent potential health issues and further structural damage.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is all black mold toxic?

No, not all black mold is toxic. While some black molds can produce harmful toxins, color alone doesn’t indicate toxicity. Many types of mold appear black or dark in color but are not necessarily dangerous.

However, it’s best to treat all mold with caution, regardless of its color. If you’re concerned about mold in your home, seek a professional assessment. Experts can identify the type of mold and recommend appropriate removal methods.

Can I remove the mold myself?

If you discover small areas of mold (less than 10 square feet), you can usually manage it yourself with the right safety gear and cleaning techniques. This means using protective equipment, containing the area, and cleaning thoroughly with suitable solutions.

For larger infestations or mold found in HVAC systems, it’s best to seek professional remediation. Experts have specialized equipment and skills to ensure safe and thorough removal. They can also tackle underlying moisture problems to prevent mold from recurring.

How quickly does mold grow after water damage?

If water gets into your home, mold can start growing in just 24 to 48 hours under certain conditions. Factors like temperature, humidity levels, and materials influence how quickly mold spreads.

To prevent mold after water damage, you should act fast. Quickly drying and cleaning affected areas is crucial. Use fans and dehumidifiers to help dry out the space. If you can’t finish drying within 48 hours, contact professionals for assistance.

Does bleach kill mold effectively? 

Contrary to popular belief, bleach isn’t always effective at killing mold, especially on porous surfaces. While it can remove surface mold, bleach often can’t penetrate deep into materials where mold roots thrive.

Use EPA-registered products designed for mold remediation for effective mold removal. Removing the affected material on porous surfaces may be necessary. And always follow safety precautions and consider professional help for extensive mold issues.

Is mold only a problem in old or dirty homes? 

This is a common misconception. Mold can grow in any home, regardless of age or cleanliness, as long as moisture and organic material are present. Even new or well-maintained homes can develop mold issues due to factors like high humidity or hidden water leaks.



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  • Clarksville
  • Murfreesboro
  • Franklin
  • Jackson
  • Johnson City
  • Bartlett


  • Indianapolis
  • Fort Wayne
  • Evansville
  • South Bend
  • Carmel
  • Fishers
  • Bloomington
  • Hammond
  • Gary
  • Lafayette


  • Kansas City
  • St. Louis
  • Springfield
  • Columbia
  • Independence
  • Lee’s Summit
  • O’Fallon
  • St. Joseph
  • St. Charles
  • St. Peters


  • Baltimore
  • Columbia
  • Germantown
  • Silver Spring
  • Waldorf
  • Glen Burnie
  • Ellicott City
  • Frederick
  • Dundalk
  • Rockville


  • Milwaukee
  • Madison
  • Green Bay
  • Kenosha
  • Racine
  • Appleton
  • Waukesha
  • Oshkosh
  • Eau Claire
  • Janesville


  • Denver
  • Colorado Springs
  • Aurora
  • Fort Collins
  • Lakewood
  • Thornton
  • Arvada
  • Westminster
  • Pueblo
  • Centennial


  • Minneapolis
  • St. Paul
  • Rochester
  • Duluth
  • Bloomington
  • Brooklyn Park
  • Plymouth
  • St. Cloud
  • Eagan
  • Woodbury

South Carolina

  • Columbia
  • Charleston
  • North Charleston
  • Mount Pleasant
  • Rock Hill
  • Greenville
  • Summerville
  • Sumter
  • Goose Creek
  • Hilton Head Island


  • Birmingham
  • Montgomery
  • Mobile
  • Huntsville
  • Tuscaloosa


  • New Orleans
  • Baton Rouge
  • Shreveport
  • Lafayette
  • Lake Charles


  • Louisville
  • Lexington
  • Bowling Green
  • Owensboro
  • Covington


  • Portland
  • Salem
  • Eugene
  • Gresham
  • Hillsboro


  • Oklahoma City
  • Tulsa
  • Norman
  • Broken Arrow
  • Edmond


  • Bridgeport
  • New Haven
  • Stamford
  • Hartford
  • Waterbury


  • Des Moines
  • Cedar Rapids
  • Davenport
  • Sioux City
  • Iowa City


  • Jackson
  • Gulfport
  • Southaven
  • Hattiesburg
  • Biloxi


  • Little Rock
  • Fort Smith
  • Fayetteville
  • Springdale
  • Jonesboro


  • Salt Lake City
  • West Valley City
  • Provo
  • West Jordan
  • Orem


  • Las Vegas
  • Henderson
  • Reno
  • North Las Vegas
  • Sparks


  • Wichita
  • Overland Park
  • Kansas City
  • Olathe
  • Topeka

New Mexico

  • Albuquerque
  • Las Cruces
  • Rio Rancho
  • Santa Fe
  • Roswell


  • Omaha
  • Lincoln
  • Bellevue
  • Grand Island
  • Kearney

West Virginia

  • Charleston
  • Huntington
  • Parkersburg
  • Morgantown
  • Wheeling


  • Boise
  • Meridian
  • Nampa
  • Idaho Falls
  • Pocatello


  • Honolulu
  • Pearl City
  • Hilo
  • Kailua
  • Waipahu


  • Portland
  • Lewiston
  • Bangor
  • South Portland
  • Auburn

New Hampshire

  • Manchester
  • Nashua
  • Concord
  • Derry
  • Dover

Rhode Island

  • Providence
  • Warwick
  • Cranston
  • Pawtucket
  • East Providence


  • Billings
  • Missoula
  • Great Falls
  • Bozeman
  • Butte


  • Wilmington
  • Dover
  • Newark
  • Middletown
  • Smyrna

South Dakota

  • Sioux Falls
  • Rapid City
  • Aberdeen
  • Brookings
  • Watertown

North Dakota

  • Fargo
  • Bismarck
  • Grand Forks
  • Minot
  • West Fargo


  • Anchorage
  • Fairbanks


  • Burlington
  • South Burlington


  • Cheyenne
  • Casper